Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 30, 2021
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Business
Floor & Decor Holdings, Inc., together with its subsidiaries (the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us”) is a multi-channel specialty retailer and commercial flooring distributor. The Company offers a broad assortment of in-stock hard-surface flooring, including tile, wood, laminate, vinyl, and natural stone along with decorative accessories and wall tile, installation materials, and adjacent categories at everyday low prices. Our stores appeal to a variety of customers, including professional installers and commercial businesses (“Pro”), Do it Yourself customers (“DIY”), and customers who buy our products for professional installation (“Buy it Yourself” or “BIY”). We operate within one reportable segment.
On June 4, 2021, the Company acquired Spartan Surfaces, Inc. (“Spartan”), a commercial specialty hard-surface flooring distribution company for total estimated purchase consideration of $77.7 million. Refer to Note 14, “Acquisition” for additional information.
As of December 30, 2021, the Company, through its wholly owned subsidiary, Floor and Decor Outlets of America, Inc. (“F&D” or “Outlets”), operates 160 warehouse-format stores, which average 78,000 square feet, and two small-format standalone design studios in 33 states as well as four distribution centers and an e-commerce site,
Fiscal Year
The Company’s fiscal year is the 52- or 53-week period ending on the Thursday on or preceding December 31st. The fiscal year ended December 31, 2020 (fiscal “2020”) includes 53 weeks, while the fiscal years ended December 30, 2021 (“fiscal 2021”) and December 26, 2019 (“fiscal 2019”) include 52 weeks. When a 53-week fiscal year occurs, we report the additional week at the end of the fiscal fourth quarter. 52-week fiscal years consist of thirteen-week periods in the first, second, third, and fourth quarters of the fiscal year. The 53-week fiscal year consists of thirteen-week periods in the first, second, and third quarters of the fiscal year and a fourteen-week period in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization announced that infections of the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) had become a pandemic, and on March 13, 2020, the President of the United States announced a National Emergency relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. The full impact that the COVID-19 pandemic could continue to have on the Company’s business remains an evolving situation and is highly uncertain. While the Company’s operations during fiscal 2021 did not appear to be negatively impacted, the COVID-19 pandemic had a material negative impact on the Company’s operations and financial results during the first half of fiscal 2020 and could have additional negative impacts in the future. The extent of the impact of the pandemic on the Company’s business and financial results will depend on future developments, including the duration of the pandemic, the success of vaccination programs, the spread of COVID-19, including its developing variants, within the markets in which the Company operates, as well as the countries from which the Company sources inventory, fixed assets, and other supplies, the effect of the pandemic on consumer confidence and spending, and actions taken by government entities in response to the pandemic, all of which are highly uncertain.
Business Combinations
The Company accounts for acquisitions in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 805, Business Combinations. The purchase price of an acquisition is measured as the aggregate fair value of the consideration transferred at the date of acquisition. The purchase price is allocated to the fair values of the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, with any excess recorded as goodwill. These fair value determinations require judgment and may involve the use of significant estimates and assumptions. The purchase price allocation may be provisional during a measurement period of up to one year from the acquisition date to provide reasonable time to obtain the information necessary to identify and measure the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. Only facts and circumstances that existed as of the acquisition date are considered for subsequent adjustment to the purchase price allocation, and any such adjustment will be recognized in the period in which it is determined prior to completion of the measurement period. Transaction costs associated with acquisitions are expensed as incurred.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash consists of currency and demand deposits with banks.
Receivables consist primarily of amounts due from credit card companies, receivables from vendors, and amounts due from commercial sales. The Company typically collects its credit card receivables within three to five business days of the underlying sale to the customer. The Company has agreements with a majority of its large merchandise vendors that allow for specified rebates based on purchasing volume. Generally, these agreements are on an annual basis, and beginning in fiscal 2020, the Company collects the majority rebates earned each quarter subsequent to quarter end. In prior years, rebates earned during the fiscal year were primarily collected annually after the Company's fiscal year-end. Additionally, the Company has agreements with substantially all vendors that allow for the return of certain merchandise throughout the normal course of business. When inventory is identified to return to a vendor, it is removed from inventory and recorded as a receivable on the Consolidated Balance Sheet, and any variance between capitalized inventory cost associated with the return and the expected vendor reimbursement is expensed in Cost of sales in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income when the inventory is identified to be returned to the vendor. The Company reserves for estimated uncollected receivables based on historical trends, which historically have been immaterial. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $0.3 million as of both December 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
On November 7, 2019, the U.S. Trade Representative made a ruling to grant exclusions from Section 301 tariffs for select types of flooring products imported from China, including certain “click” vinyl and engineered products that the Company has sold and continues to sell. The Section 301 tariffs from which these goods are now excluded were implemented at 10% beginning in September 2018 and increased to 25% in June 2019. In addition, on November 20, 2019, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (“U.S. Customs”) issued Chapter 99 exclusions for each unique article number identified under the November 7, 2019 USTR ruling. During fiscal 2020, additional Chapter 99 exclusions were issued for certain bamboo and other flooring products imported from China. For the Company, some of the granted exclusions apply retroactively to tariffs paid as early as September 2018.
While tariff refund claims are subject to the approval of U.S. Customs, the Company currently expects to recover a total of $22.0 million related to Section 301 tariff payments, of which $14.6 million has been received as of December 30, 2021. As of December 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, receivables included $7.4 million and $11.4 million of expected tariff refunds from U.S. Customs. The tariff refund receivables outstanding as of December 30, 2021 are expected to be received during fiscal 2022.
The Company recognized a $2.6 million increase to cost of sales related to a reduction in estimated tariff refunds in fiscal 2021. During fiscal 2020 and 2019, the Company recognized a reduction to cost of sales of $4.5 million and $14.0 million, respectively.
Interest income recognized related to tariff refunds during fiscal 2021, 2020, and 2019 was $0.3 million, $0.6 million, $0.3 million, respectively. Interest accrues from the date that tariff payments were originally made through the date that such payments are refunded to the Company.
Credit Program
Credit is offered to the Company's customers through a proprietary credit card underwritten by third-party financial institutions at no recourse to the Company. The Company also offers limited credit to its commercial clients. The Company’s total credit exposure for receivables not insured by a third party at the end of fiscal 2021 and fiscal 2020 was $6.0 million and $1.2 million, respectively.
Inventory Valuation and Shrinkage
Inventories consist of merchandise held for sale and are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. When evidence exists that the net realizable value of inventory is lower than its cost, the difference is recorded in cost of sales in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income as a loss in the period in which it occurs. The Company determines inventory costs using the moving weighted average cost method. The Company capitalizes transportation, duties, and other costs to get product to its retail locations. The Company records reserves for estimated losses related to shrinkage and other amounts that are otherwise not expected to be fully recoverable. These reserves are calculated based on historical shrinkage, selling price, margin, and current business trends. The estimates have calculations that require management to make assumptions based on the current rate of sales, age, salability, and profitability of inventory, historical percentages that can be affected by changes in the Company's merchandising mix, customer preferences, and changes in actual shrinkage trends. These reserves totaled $7.8 million and $5.4 million as of December 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
Physical inventory counts and cycle counts are performed on a regular basis in each store and distribution center to ensure that amounts reflected in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets are properly stated. During the period between physical inventory counts in its stores, the Company accrues for estimated losses related to shrinkage on a store-by-store basis. Shrinkage is the difference between the recorded amount of inventory and the physical inventory. Shrinkage may occur due to theft or loss, among other things.
Fixed Assets
Fixed assets consist primarily of furniture, fixtures, and equipment, leasehold improvements (including those that are reimbursed by landlords as tenant improvement allowances), buildings and building improvements, computer software and hardware, and land. Fixed assets are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation utilizing the straight-line method over the assets’ estimated useful lives. The Company capitalizes interest on borrowings during the active construction period of certain capital projects.
Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of (i) the original term of the lease, (ii) renewal term of the lease if the renewal is reasonably certain or (iii) the useful life of the improvement. The Company’s fixed assets are depreciated using the following estimated useful lives:
Useful Life
Furniture, fixtures and equipment
2 - 7 years
Leasehold improvements
10 - 25 years
Buildings and building improvements
10 - 40 years
Computer software and hardware
3 - 7 years
Land Indefinite
The cost and related accumulated depreciation of assets sold or otherwise disposed are removed from the accounts, and the related gain or loss is reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Capitalized Software Costs
The Company capitalizes certain costs related to the acquisition and development of software and amortizes these costs using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the software. Certain development costs not meeting the criteria for capitalization are expensed as incurred.
Finite-lived Intangible Assets
In accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, identifiable intangible assets with finite lives are amortized over their estimated useful lives. The estimated lives of the Company’s finite-lived intangible assets are as follows:
Useful Life
Customer relationships 12 years
Non-compete agreement 5 years
Goodwill and Other Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired. The Company does not amortize goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives resulting from business combinations but, in accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other, does assess the recoverability of goodwill annually in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year, or more often if events occur or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill may not be recoverable. Such circumstances could include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in customer demand or business climate or an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. Each year, the Company may assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of the single reporting unit is less than its carrying amount as a basis for determining whether it is necessary to complete quantitative impairment assessments.
Impairment Assessment of Goodwill and Other Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets
The Company tests goodwill and its trade names, which are indefinite-lived intangible assets, for impairment annually in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year, or more often if events occur or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of goodwill or indefinite-lived intangible assets may not be recoverable. The Company has the option to assess the value of its goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets under either a qualitative or quantitative approach. Under a qualitative approach, the Company evaluates various market and other factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the Company’s goodwill or other indefinite-lived intangible assets have been impaired. In performing the qualitative assessment, the Company considers the carrying value of its single reporting unit compared to its fair value as well as events and changes in circumstances that could include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in customer demand or business climate, an adverse action or assessment by a regulator, and significant adverse changes in the price of the Company’s common stock. If such qualitative assessment indicates that impairment may have occurred, an additional quantitative assessment is performed by comparing the carrying value of the assets to their respective estimated fair values. If the recorded carrying value of goodwill or an other indefinite-lived intangible asset exceeds its estimated fair value, an impairment charge is recorded to write the asset down to its estimated fair value.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2021, the Company qualitatively assessed whether it was more likely than not that the goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets were impaired. Based on this assessment, the Company determined that its goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets were not impaired as of October 29, 2021. No events or changes in circumstances have occurred since the date of the Company's most recent annual impairment assessment that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying amount.
The Company’s goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets impairment assessments contain uncertainties because they require management to make significant judgments in estimating the fair value of the Company’s reporting unit and other indefinite-lived intangible assets and, if a quantitative assessment is deemed necessary, may include the projection of future cash flows, assumptions about which market participants are the most comparable, the selection of discount rates, and the weighting of the income and market approaches. These calculations contain uncertainties because they require management to make assumptions such as estimating economic factors, including the profitability of future business operations and, if necessary, the fair value of the reporting unit’s assets and liabilities. Further, the Company’s ability to realize the future cash flows used in its fair value calculations is affected by factors such as changes in economic conditions, changes in the Company’s operating performance, and changes in the Company’s business strategies. Significant changes in any of the assumptions involved in calculating these estimates could affect the estimated fair value of the Company’s reporting unit and indefinite-lived intangible assets and could result in impairment charges in a future period.
Long-lived Assets
Long-lived assets, such as fixed assets, operating lease right-of-use assets, and intangible assets with finite lives, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Conditions that may indicate impairment include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in customer demand or business climate that could affect the value of an asset, significant changes or planned changes in the Company’s use of an asset, a product recall, or an adverse action by a regulator. In accordance with ASC 360, the evaluation is performed at the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are available that are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets or asset groups. If the sum of the estimated undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying value of the related asset or asset group, an impairment loss is recognized equal to the difference between carrying value and fair value.
Since there is typically no active market for the Company’s definite-lived intangible assets, the Company estimates fair value based on expected future cash flows at the time they are identified. When events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, the Company estimates future cash flows based on store-level historical results, current trends, and operating and cash flow projections. Definite-lived intangible assets are amortized over their respective estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis, which the Company believes to be the amortization methodology that best matches the pattern of economic benefit that is expected from the assets. The useful lives of definite-lived intangible asset are evaluated on an annual basis.
The Company recognizes lease right-of-use assets and corresponding lease liabilities for all operating leases on the balance sheet, excluding short-term leases (leases with terms of 12 months or less) as described under ASU No. 2016-2, “Leases (Topic 842).” The majority of the Company’s long-term operating lease agreements include options to extend, which are also factored into the recognition of their respective assets and liabilities when appropriate based on management’s assessment of the probability that the options will be exercised. Lease payments are discounted using the rate implicit in the lease, or, if not readily determinable, a third-party secured incremental borrowing rate based on information available at lease commencement. The secured incremental borrowing rate is estimated based on yields obtained from Bloomberg for U.S. consumers with a BB- credit rating and is adjusted for collateralization as well as inflation. Additionally, certain of the Company’s lease agreements include escalating rents over the lease terms which, under Topic 842, results in rent being expensed on a straight-line basis over the life of the lease that commences on the date the Company has the right to control the property.
Self-Insurance Reserves
The Company is partially self-insured for workers’ compensation and general liability claims less than certain dollar amounts and maintains insurance coverage with individual and aggregate limits. The Company’s liabilities represent estimates of the ultimate cost for claims incurred, including loss adjusting expenses, as of the balance sheet date. The estimated liabilities are not discounted and are established based upon analysis of historical data, actuarial estimates, regulatory requirements, an estimate of claims incurred but not yet reported, and other relevant factors. Management utilizes independent third-party actuarial studies to help assess the liability on a regular basis.
Commitments and Contingencies
Liabilities for loss contingencies arising from claims, assessments, litigation, fines, penalties, and other sources are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated.
Asset Retirement Obligations
An asset retirement obligation (“ARO”) represents a legal obligation associated with the retirement of a tangible long-lived asset that is incurred upon the acquisition, construction, development or normal operation of that long-lived asset. The Company’s AROs are primarily associated with leasehold improvements that, at the end of a lease, the Company is contractually obligated to remove in order to comply with certain lease agreements. The ARO is recorded in Other liabilities on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and will be subsequently adjusted for changes in fair value. The associated estimated asset retirement costs are capitalized as part of the carrying amount of the long-lived asset and depreciated over its useful life.
Changes in (i) inflation rates and (ii) the estimated costs, timing and extent of future store closure activities each result in (a) a current adjustment to the recorded liability and related asset and (b) a change in the liability and asset amounts to be recorded prospectively. Any changes related to the assets are then recognized in accordance with the Company’s depreciation policy, which would generally result in depreciation expense being recognized prospectively over the shorter of the remaining lease term or estimated useful life.
Fair Value Measurements
The Company estimates fair values in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement. ASC 820 provides a framework for measuring fair value and requires disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC 820 defines fair value as the price that would be received from the sale of an asset or paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. Additionally, ASC 820 defines levels within a hierarchy based upon observable and non-observable inputs. If the inputs used to measure fair value fall within different levels of the hierarchy, the category level is based on the lowest priority level input that is significant to the overall fair value measurement of the instrument.
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities as of the reporting date;
Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reporting date; and
Level 3: Unobservable inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s own estimates about the assumptions market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company uses derivative financial instruments to maintain a portion of its long-term debt obligations at a targeted balance of fixed and variable interest rate debt to manage its risk associated with fluctuations in interest rates. Derivative contracts are recognized at fair value on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The fair value is calculated utilizing Level 2 inputs. Unrealized changes in the fair value of hedged derivative instruments are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income within the stockholders’ equity section of the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The effective portion of the gain or loss on the derivatives is reported as a component of comprehensive income within the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income and reclassified into earnings in the same period in which the hedged transaction affects earnings. The effective portion of the derivative represents the change in fair value of the hedge that offsets the change in fair value of the hedged item. To the extent changes in fair values of the instruments are not highly effective, the ineffective portion of the hedge is immediately recognized in earnings.
The Company performs an assessment of the effectiveness of its derivative contracts designated as hedges, including assessing the possibility of counterparty default. If it is determined that a derivative is no longer expected to be highly effective, hedge accounting is discontinued prospectively, and subsequent changes in the fair value of the hedge are recognized in earnings. The Company’s outstanding derivative contracts, which are interest rate cap contracts that continue to be designated as cash flow hedges, are expected to continue to be highly effective in offsetting changes in cash flow attributable to floating interest rate risk. See Note 8, “Derivatives and Risk Management” for additional information.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of the financial statements requires management of the Company to make a number of estimates and assumptions relating to the reported amount of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of sales and expenses during the period. Significant items subject to such estimates and assumptions include the carrying amounts of fixed assets and intangibles, asset retirement obligations, allowances for accounts receivable and inventories, reserves for workers' compensation and general liability claims incurred but not reported, and deferred income tax assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Revenue Recognition
In accordance with Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-9, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” (“Topic 606”), revenue and cost of sales are recognized when the related performance obligations in contracts with customers are settled. Performance obligations for the Company’s retail store sales, as well as for orders placed through its website and shipped to customers, are satisfied at the point at which the customer obtains control of the inventory, which is typically at the point-of-sale. In some cases, merchandise is not physically ready for transfer to the customer at the point-of-sale, and revenue recognition is deferred until the customer has control of the inventory. Shipping and handling activities are accounted for as activities to fulfill the promise to transfer goods rather than as separate performance obligations as outlined within Topic 606. Payment is generally due from the customer immediately at the point-of-sale for both retail store sales and website sales. The nature of the goods offered primarily include hard surface flooring and related accessories. The Company does not perform installation services, and free design services are offered in-store. The transaction price recognized in revenue represents the selling price of the products offered. Sales taxes collected are not recognized as revenue as these amounts are ultimately remitted to the appropriate taxing authorities.
The Company provides customers the right to return the goods sold to them within a reasonable time period, typically 90 days. The right of return is an element of variable consideration as defined within Topic 606. Reserves for future returns of previously sold goods are estimated based on historical experience and various other assumptions that management believes to be reasonable. These reserves reduce sales and cost of sales and establish a related return asset and refund liability as defined in Topic 606. The return asset is included within prepaid expenses and other current assets, and the refund liability is included within accrued expenses and other current liabilities, each respectively on the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Merchandise exchanges of similar product and price are not considered merchandise returns and, therefore, are excluded when calculating the sales returns reserve.
Gift Cards and Merchandise Credits
The Company sells gift cards to customers through its stores and website and also issues merchandise credits in its stores. Gift cards and merchandise credits are accounted for by recognizing a liability at the time the gift card is sold or the merchandise credit is issued. The liability is relieved and revenue is recognized upon redemption. Additionally, breakage income is recognized in proportion to the pattern of rights exercised by the customer when the Company expects to be entitled to breakage. Net sales related to the estimated breakage are included in net sales in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. The Company has an agreement with an unrelated third-party who is the issuer of the Company's gift cards and also assumes the liability for unredeemed gift cards. The Company is not subject to claims under unclaimed property statutes, as the agreement effectively transfers the ownership of such unredeemed gift cards and the related future escheatment liability, if any, to the third-party. Gift card breakage is recognized based upon historical redemption patterns and represents the balance of gift cards for which the Company believes the likelihood of redemption by the customer is remote. Accordingly, in fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019, the Company recognized gift card breakage income related to unredeemed gift cards of $2.4 million, $1.5 million, and $1.2 million, respectively, within net sales in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Loyalty Program
The Company completed the roll out of its Pro Premier loyalty program to all stores in the second half of fiscal 2019, which allows customers to earn points through purchases from the Company’s stores and website. Loyalty points are typically awarded at one percent of the relative standalone selling price of the merchandise sold and are recognized at the time of sale as a liability with a corresponding reduction to net sales. Additionally, loyalty breakage is recognized based on the Company’s estimate of the balance of loyalty points for which the likelihood of redemption by the customer is deemed remote. This estimate is determined with assistance from the third party servicer that manages the loyalty program and is based on the Company’s historical redemption trends, market benchmarks for the pattern of redemptions for other retail loyalty programs, and other assumptions related to the likelihood of customer redemptions. Redemption patterns for the loyalty program are monitored on an ongoing basis and the estimated loyalty breakage rate will be adjusted, as necessary, as the program matures. In fiscal years 2021, 2020, and 2019, loyalty breakage of $2.2 million, $1.4 million, and $1.1 million respectively, was recognized as net sales in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Sales Returns and Allowances
The Company accrues for estimated sales returns based on historical results. The allowance for sales returns at December 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, was $36.2 million and $22.3 million, respectively.
Cost of Sales
Cost of sales consists of merchandise costs as well as freight, duty, and other costs to transport inventory to the Company’s distribution centers and stores. Cost of sales also includes costs for shrinkage, damaged product disposals, distribution, warehousing, sourcing, compliance, and arranging and paying for freight to deliver products to customers. The Company receives cash consideration from certain vendors related to vendor allowances and volume rebates, which is recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of inventory if the inventory is on hand and a reduction to cost of sales when the inventory is sold.
Vendor Rebates and Allowances
Vendor allowances consist primarily of volume rebates that are earned as a result of attaining certain inventory purchase levels and advertising allowances or incentives for the promotion of vendors' products. These vendor allowances are accrued as earned and are estimated based on annual projections.
Vendor allowances earned are initially recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of inventory and a subsequent reduction in cost of sales when the related product is sold. Certain incentive allowances that are reimbursements of specific, incremental, and identifiable costs incurred to promote vendors’ products are recorded as an offset against these promotional expenses.
Total Operating Expenses
Total operating expenses consist primarily of store and administrative personnel wages and benefits, infrastructure expenses, supplies, fixed asset depreciation, store and corporate facility expenses, pre-opening costs, training costs, and advertising costs. Credit card fees, insurance, personal property taxes, legal expenses, and other miscellaneous operating costs are also included.
Advertising Expenses
The Company expenses advertising costs as the advertising takes place. Advertising costs incurred during the fiscal years ended December 30, 2021, December 31, 2020, and December 26, 2019 were $90.4 million, $66.6 million, and $65.7 million, respectively, and are included in selling and store operating expenses and pre-opening expenses in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Pre-Opening Expenses
The Company accounts for non-capital operating expenditures incurred prior to opening a new store as “pre-opening” expenses in its Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. The Company's pre-opening expenses begin on average three months to one year in advance of a store opening or relocating due to, among other things, the amount of time it takes to prepare a store for its grand opening. Pre-opening expenses primarily include: advertising, rent, staff training, staff recruiting, utilities, personnel, and equipment rental. A store is considered to be relocated if it is closed temporarily and re-opened within the same primary trade area. Pre-opening expenses for the fiscal years ended December 30, 2021, December 31, 2020, and December 26, 2019, totaled $34.4 million, $21.5 million, and $24.6 million, respectively.
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for employee stock options, restricted stock, and employee stock purchase plans in accordance with ASC 718, Compensation – Stock Compensation. As necessary, the Company obtains independent third-party valuation studies to assist with determining the grant date fair value of employee stock awards. Stock options are granted with exercise prices equal to or greater than the fair market value on the date of grant as authorized by the board of directors or compensation committee. Options granted have vesting provisions ranging from one year to five years. Stock option grants are generally subject to forfeiture if employment terminates prior to vesting. The Company has selected the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model for estimating the grant date fair value of stock option awards granted. The Company bases the risk-free interest rate on the yield of a zero coupon U.S. Treasury security with a maturity equal to the expected life of the option from the date of the grant. The Company estimates the dividend yield to be zero as the Company does not intend to pay dividends in the future. The Company estimates the volatility of the share price of its common stock by considering the historical volatility of the Company’s common stock as well as stock of similar public entities. The Company considers a number of factors in determining the appropriateness of the public entities included in the volatility assumption, including the entity's life cycle stage, growth profile, size, financial leverage, and products offered. Stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the value of the award and is recognized as expense over the requisite service period based on the number of years for which the requisite service is expected to be rendered.
Income Taxes
The Company accounts for income taxes under the liability method in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and tax basis of existing assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Changes in tax laws and rates could affect recorded deferred tax assets and liabilities in the future. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax laws or rates is recognized in the period that includes the enactment date of such a change.
The ultimate realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which the associated temporary differences became deductible. On a quarterly basis, the Company evaluates whether it is more likely than not that its deferred tax assets will be realized in the future and concludes whether a valuation allowance must be established.
The Company includes any estimated interest and penalties on tax-related matters in income taxes payable and income tax expense. The Company accounts for uncertain tax positions in accordance with ASC 740. ASC 740-10 clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise's financial statements using a two-step process for evaluating tax positions taken, or expected to be taken, on a tax return. The Company may only recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. In addition, the Company recognizes a loss contingency for uncertain tax positions when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Amounts recognized for uncertain tax positions require that management make estimates and judgments based on provisions of the tax law, which may be subject to change or varying interpretations. The Company includes estimated interest and penalties related to uncertain tax position accruals within accrued expenses and other current liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets and within income tax expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
The Company operates as a multi-channel specialty retailer and commercial flooring distributor. The Company primarily sells hard surface flooring and related accessories through retail stores located in the United States and through its website.
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which discrete financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. The Company’s CODM, its Chief Executive Officer, reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis, accompanied by information about the Company’s two operating segments, Floor & Decor Retail and Spartan, for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. The Spartan segment, which engages in commercial flooring distribution and is entirely comprised of the Company’s Spartan subsidiary that was acquired during the second quarter of fiscal 2021, does not meet the materiality criteria of ASC 280, Segment Reporting (“ASC 280”), and is therefore not disclosed separately as a reportable segment. Specifically, the Spartan segment’s revenue, gross profit, operating income, and total assets are immaterial in relation to the Company’s consolidated revenue, gross profit, operating income, and total assets.
The Company concluded that the economic and operating characteristics of its one reportable segment, Floor & Decor Retail, are similar across its retail operations, including the net sales, gross profit and gross margin, and operating income of its retail stores as well as the nature of products and services offered, customer base, marketing initiatives, operating procedures, store layouts, employee incentive programs, methods of distribution, competitive and operating risks, and the level of shared resources across the business.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Presentation of Financial Statements, Financial Services—Depository and Lending, Financial Services—Investment Companies. In August 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-06, “Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205), Financial Services—Depository and Lending (Topic 942), and Financial Services—Investment Companies (Topic 946).” The ASU includes Release No.33-10786, Amendments to Financial Disclosures about Acquired and Disposed Businesses. This update amends certain SEC disclosure guidance that is included in the accounting standards codification to reflect the SEC’s recent issuance of rules intended to modernize and streamline disclosure requirements, including updates to business acquisition and disposition significance tests used, the significance thresholds for pro forma statement disclosures, the number of preceding years of financial statements required for disclosure, and other provisions in the SEC releases. The guidance is effective upon its addition to the FASB codification. The adoption of ASU No. 2021-06 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements or related disclosures.
Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. In December 2019, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes.” The ASU simplifies the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740. The ASU also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application among reporting entities. In the first quarter of fiscal 2021, the Company adopted ASU No. 2019-12 on a prospective basis. The adoption of ASU No. 2019-12 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Implementation Costs Incurred in Cloud Computing Arrangements. In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that is a Service Contract.” ASU No. 2018-15 aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. In the first quarter of fiscal 2020, the Company adopted ASU No. 2018-15 on a prospective basis for implementation costs for new or existing arrangements incurred on or after the adoption date. The adoption of ASU No. 2018-15 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Credit Losses. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments,” which modifies the measurement approach for credit losses on financial assets measured on an amortized cost basis from an 'incurred loss' method to an 'expected loss' method. The amended guidance requires the measurement of expected credit losses to be based on relevant information, including historical experience, current conditions, and a reasonable and supportable forecast that affects the collectability of the related financial asset. The adoption of ASU No. 2016-13 in the first quarter of fiscal 2020 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Leases. In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-2, “Leases (Topic 842).” ASU No. 2016-2 requires that lessees recognize lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet with an option to exclude short-term leases (leases with terms of 12 months or less). The guidance also requires disclosures about the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-2 in the first quarter of fiscal 2019 using the modified retrospective approach. The cumulative effect adjustment upon adoption resulted in a $0.2 million opening balance sheet reduction to retained earnings. The adoption of ASU No. 2016-2 had a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets but did not have a material impact on the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income or Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. See Note 9, “Commitments and Contingencies,” for additional information related to the Company’s leases.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Reference Rate Reform. In January 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-01, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848),” which provides optional guidance to ease the potential accounting and financial reporting burden of reference rate reform, including the expected market transition from the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) and other interbank offered rates to alternative reference rates. The new guidance provides temporary optional expedients and exceptions for applying U.S. GAAP to transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. These transactions include contract modifications, hedging relationships, and the sale or transfer of debt securities classified as held-to-maturity. Entities may apply the provisions of the new standard as of the beginning of the reporting period when the election is made. Unlike other topics, the provisions of this update are only available until December 31, 2022, by which time the reference rate replacement activity is expected to be completed. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures and has yet to elect an adoption date.
Business Combinations. In October 2021, the FASB issued ASU No. 2021-08, “Business Combinations (Topic 805), Accounting for Contract Assets and Contract Liabilities from Contracts with Customers.” The ASU addresses diversity and inconsistency related to the recognition and measurement of contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination and require that an acquirer recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities acquired in a business combination in accordance with Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. This standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and should be applied prospectively to business combinations occurring on or after the effective date of the amendments. Early adoption of the standard is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The adoption of this standard is not expected to have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements or related disclosures.